MODIFICATION TECHNIQUES PARA SA MGA BATANG
MAY SPECIAL NEEDS
By: Randy N. Tallorin
niyo bang sabihin ito sa inyong sarili?
ko na lamang ang gusto niya para di umiyak.
hindi mo binigay ang gusto niya, magwawala yan.
ayaw niya, ayaw niya talaga. Pag pinilit lalo lang magwawala yan.
Mga karaniwang problema na nagdudulot ng ganitong reaksyon sa mga
magulang o guro ay kung:
ang kakayahan ng bata na pigilan ang kaniyang sarili (impulse control)
bata na makukuha niya ang gusto niya kapag ginawa niya ang isang bagay.
ang kakayahan ng batang tiisin o hintayin makuha ang kanyang gusto
oras lamang nakakaupo ang bata
kapag hindi nakukuha ang gusto
Ano ang dapat gawin
ukol dito? May sari sariling paraan ang
pagharap sa mga ganitong suliranin.
Ito ay ang mga sumusunod:
Contract Setting (Pagtatalaga
Ito ay isinasagawa sa pamamagitan ng pagpapatapos muna sa
bata ang dapat gawin bago ibigay ang kanyang nais. Siguraduhin na malinaw ang
inyong usapan at maging tapat sa inyong salita. Halimbawa, “ Pagbilang ko ng 5,
kailangan nakaligpit na yang mga laruan mo” o “ Tatapusin mo muna yang ginagawa
mo bago ka maglaro”
Positive/Negative Reinforcements (Pagbibigay
ng pabuya o ng parusa)
Kapag may nagawang maganda ang bata,
ng pabuya tulad ng stickers, kendi, laruan o
ng mga paboritong bagay . Maaari ding sabihan siya
ng mga papuri tulad ng “ very good!”, “good job”, o
“magaling”. Ang paraang ito ay maaring magpagal ng
kanyang atensyon kung palaging maibibigay ang kanyang
pabuya o nasasabihan ng mga bagay na kanyang gusto. Pwedi
ring sabihan siya ng “bad yan” o “ di maganda yan”.
Ignoring (Di pagpasin sa mga
gawaing di maganda).
Kapag may ginawang di kanais-nais o nawawala ang atensyon
ang inyong students at iba na ang ginagawa, ibalik ang kanyang atensyon sa
activities sa pamamagitan ng pagsabi na “mamaya na yan, tapusin muna natin ito”
Firm Kindness (Pagsaway
ng malumanay na paraan)
ay isinasagawa kapag may ginawang hindi maganda ang bata. Kailangan malaman
niya na kayo parin ang masusunod at kailangan niyang matapos ang gawain o
itigil ang kanyang ginagawa na hindi maganda kahit na ano pang mangyari. Gawin
ang pagsaway sa kalmadong paraan at hanggat maaari ay huwag sawayin ng pagalit
na boses dahil baka lalong ipagpatuloy ng bata ang hindi magandang gawain.
Sabihin ito ng kalmado pero madiin ang tono ng boses.
Kapag ipinagpatuloy pa rin ng bata ang
gawain, paupuin siya sa isang sulok ng ilang minuto o hanggang
itigil niya ang kanyang di magandang ginagawa.
Huwag kalimutan na ipaliwanag ng malinaw
sa inyong students kung bakit ginawa iyon sa kanya.
Siguraduhin din na babantayan ang bata
habang isinasagawa ang parusa at dapat ay wala
siyang ibang pweding gawin habang nakaupo.
Environmental Modification Techniques
ay ang pag – iiba o pagsasaayos ng kapaligiran ng
bata upang mas maituon ang pansin sa takdang gawain.
Ang layunin ay upang mabawasan ang mga nakakaabala at
nakaka-distract sa bata.
PAALALA: Hindi lamang isa sa mga paraang
upang matulungan ang bata. Pweding pagsama-samahin o
piliin kung ano ang epektibong gamitin para sa inyong
SENSORY-SEEKING CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS
By: Randy N.
Just like little tornadoes
unleashed into a room, these children run non-stop, climb unto furniture and
break everything they touch.
They can be very withdrawn,
staying in a corner, seemingly avoiding any contact with other people. They are
not picky eaters. They are VERY picky eaters – choosing to eat only certain
foods like crispy chicken skin, the red hotdogs or just simply burgers. They
may avoid rice or meat, and surprisingly, can tease these out with their
tongues if either is “sneaked” in into their food.
Some personal hygiene
activities can be such ordeals. They cannot tolerate, having their brushed or
their nails clipped. In school, they have difficulty staying in their seats,
attending to the teacher, finishing writing tasks, using playground equipment
or performing physical education tasks such as doing jumping, crawling or
dribbling a ball.
Because of these behaviors,
these children may be erroneously labeled as being intentionally difficult,
defiant, anti-social or clumsy. In tagalog term that is pasaway o malikot.
Unknown to many, these children
may be suffering from a dysfunction in sensory dysfunction. Sensory dysfunction
refers to inability of a person to take in, process and use different
sensations from his/her body and environment in order to perform every tasks.
Person with autism are some of
those who have been noted to have dysfunction in sensory integration. As a result,
they have difficulty participating in certain daily activities.
IS SENSORY INTEGRATION AND HOW CAN IT HELP THE CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS?
Sensory Integration (SI) is a
both a theory and an intervention designed by Dr. A. Jean Ayres, an
occupational therapist, to help these children cope with theory sensory
integration difficulties. SI is a child – centered, sensory-based and
collaborative approach aimed at improving the brain’s ability to interpret and use information for participation in daily life activities.
IN SENSORY INTEGRATION
(DSI) refers to the inability
of a person to take in, process and use different sensations from his/her body
and the environment in order to perform everyday tasks. There are several types
A. Sensory Modulation
Disorder – refers to the ability of the brain to regulate sensory stimuli. SMD
results when a person has difficulty responding to sensory input in a way that
is graded relative to the degree, nature, or intensity of the sensory information.
1. Sensory Over -
Responsivity (Ang Maselang Bata) – Children with SOR respond to sensory input
faster, with more intensity or for longer periods of time than those with
typical responses. SOR may occur in just one system or in multiple systems.
behaviors inactive of SOR include:
for being touched, kissed or cuddled
to tolerate certain food textures (e.g. children who eat crunchy foods only and
never rice or meat)
distressed and covering their ears when hearing typical everyday sounds (e.g. a tricycle or the buzz
of an electric fan)
tolerating movement (e.g. they do not like
getting on swing or a ride
2. Sensory Under –
Responsivity (Ang Batang Dedma) – refers to inability to detect and respond to
sensory stimuli in the environment. This may lead to apathy, lethargy and a
seeming lack of motivation to socialize and interact with other people.
Children with SUR are often described as withdrawn, difficult to motivate,
inattentive or “spaced out”.
Example of behaviors
to respond to pain ( e.g. a child who falls from a height but simply gets up
anc continues running as if nothing happened or not noticing when he/she gets a
cut or bruise)
of response to verbal commands despite having normal hearing.
Seeking/craving ( Ang Batang Kiti-kiti) – children who have these usually be:
running and moving incessantly
in “crash and burn” activities
in unacceptable or unsafe activities (e.g. climbing a high table/cabinet then
children often perceived as troublesome, dangerous or overly active. They often
get into trouble in school (e.g. being given disciplinary actions) and social
situations (e.g. getting embarrassed because they break something or
accidentally hurt someone during a party)
B. Sensory-Based Motor
Disorder – refers to difficulties with maintain posture and planning and
executing movements, especially novel ones. Subtype of SBMD:
1.) Postural Disorder
(Batang Bukot) – these children who have difficulty stabilizing the body during movement or at rest, resulting in
failure to perform motor tasks efficiently. They often slump or slouch when
standing or sitting. They also have difficulty maintain their body position during
of children with PD may rest their head on the table while writing or may
slowly slide off their chair after sitting for sometime (eventually falling of
their chair). Because of these difficulties, they may prefer sedentary
activities and avoid movement.
Discrimination Disorder (Ang Batang Slow) – refers to the difficulty in
interpreting the qualities of sensations and perceiving their similarities and
differences. SDD can be observed in any of the sensory systems and can cause
“slow” performance because the person may need more time to process the salient
aspects of sensory input.
example, a child may have difficulty differentiating “b” from “d” causing him
to slow down when reading “bad” (deciding if it’s “bad” or “dad”). A child may
have difficulty gauging how much force he/she is exerting on a bottle of glue
causing him/her to spill the contents unto paper, consequently causing a delay.
the same child may squeeze the bottle so lightly that it takes a long time for
the glue to come out of the tube. As a result, these children may eventually
develop low self-confidence, poor frustration tolerance or attention-seeking
SSD may manifest in any of the senses (auditory, visual, touch, vestibular,
proprioceptive and taste/smell)